Optimal handling conditions for Fruits and Vegetables

Optimal Handling Conditions for Fruits and Vegetables

Cooling Methods:

HVC: Hydro Vacuum Cooling FA-EC: Forced-air Evaporative Cooling
VC: Vacuum Cooling PI: Package-icing
HC: Hydro Cooling R: Room Cooling
FA: Forced-air Cooling
Common name Storage temperature Relative humidity* % Highest freezing temperature Approximate storage life Suitable Cooling Method(s)
°C °F °C °F
Apple 5 40 90-95 -1.5 29.3 1-2 months FA, R, HC
Apricot 0 31-32 90-95 -1.1 30 1-3 weeks R, FA
Beans
Lima 5-6 41-43 95 -0.5 31 5-7 days HC, FA
Snap, wax, green 4-7 40-45 95 -0.7 30.7 7-10 days HC, FA
Berries
Blackberry 0 31-32 90-95 -0.8 30.6 3-6 days FA
Blueberry 0 31-32 90-95 -1.3 29.7 10-18 days FA
Elderberry 0 31-32 90-95 -1.1 30.0 5-14 days FA
Strawberry 0 32 90-95 -0.8 30.6 7-10 days VC, FA
Broccoli 0 32 95-100 -0.5 31.0 10-14 days HC, FA, PI
Cabbage
Chinese, Napa 0 32 95-100 -0.9 30.4 2-3 months VC, FA
common, early crop 0 32 98-100 -0.9 30.4 3-6 weeks VC, FA
late crop 0 32 95-100 -0.9 30.4 5-6 months VC, FA
Carrots
topped 0 32 98-100 -1.4 29.5 6-8 months HC, PI, FA
bunched, immature 0 32 98-100 -1.4 29.5 10-14 days VC, HC, PI, FA
Cauliflower 0 32 95-98 -0.8 30.6 3-4 weeks VC, FA
Collards 0 32 95-100 -0.5 31.1 10-14 days VC, HVC, FA, R
Corn, sweet 0 32 95-98 -0.5 31.0 5-8 days VC, HC, PI, FA
Cucumber 10-12 50-54 85-90 -0.5 31.1 10-14 days VC, R, FA, FA-EC
Eggplant 10-12 50-54 90-95 -0.8 30.6 1-2 weeks VC, R, FA, FA-EC
Fig, fresh 0 31-32 85-90 -2.4 27.6 7-10 days R
Kale 0 32 95-100 -0.5 31.1 10-14 days VC, HVC, R, FA
Leek 0 32 95-100 -0.7 30.7 2 months VC, HC, PI
Lettuce 0 32 98-100 -0.2 31.7 2-3 weeks VC, HVC, FA, HC
Melons
Cantaloupes and other netted melons 2-5 36-41 95 -1.2 29.9 2-3 weeks HC, FA, PI, FA-EC
Honeydew 5-10 41-50 85-90 -1.1 30.1 3-4 weeks FA, R, FA-EC
Nectarine 0 31-32 90-95 -0.9 30.3 2-4 weeks FA, HC
Okra 7-10 45-50 90-95 -1.8 28.7 7-10 days R, FA, FA-EC
Onions
Mature bulbs, dry 0 32 65-70 -0.8 30.6 1-8 months R, FA
Green 0 32 95-100 -0.9 30.4 3 weeks HVC, PI, HC
Parsley 0 32 95-100 -1.1 30 1-2 months HC, PI
Peach 0 31-32 90-95 -0.9 30.3 2-4 weeks FA, HC
Pear -2-0 29-31 90-95 -1.7 29.0 2-7 months FA, HC, R
Peas in pods; snow, snap & sugar peas 0-1 32-34 90-98 -0.6 30.9 1-2 weeks VC, FA, PI
Peppers
Bell pepper 7-10 45-50 95-98 -0.7 30.7 2-3 weeks VC, R, FA, FA-EC
Hot peppers, chilies 5-10 41-50 85-95 -0.7 30.7 2-3 weeks VC, R, FA, FA-EC
Persimmon, Japanese 0 32 90-95 -2.2 28.0 2-3 months R
Plums and prunes 0 31-32 90-95 -0.8 30.5 2-5 weeks FA, HC, R
Pumpkin 12-15 54-59 50-70 -0.8 30.5 2-3 months R
Radish 0 32 95-100 -0.7 30.7 1-2 months HC, R, PI
Rutabaga 0 32 98-100 -1.1 30.1 4-6 months HC, R, PI
Spinach 0 32 95-100 -0.3 31.5 10-14 days VC, HVC, FA, HC
Squash
Summer (soft rind), courgette 7-10 45-50 95 -0.5 31.1 1-2 weeks FA, FA-EC, R
Winter (hard rind), calabash 12-15 54-59 50-70 -0.8 30.5 2-3 months R
Sweet potato, yam 13-15 55-59 85-95 -1.3 29.7 4-7 months HC, R
Tomato
Mature-green 10-13 50-55 90-95 -0.5 31.1 2-5 weeks FA, FA-EC, R
Firm-ripe 8-10 46-50 85-90 -0.5 31.1 1-3 weeks FA, FA-EC, R
Turnip root 0 32 95 -1.1 30.1 4-5 months HC, PI, FA
Watermelon 10-15 50-59 90 -0.4 31.3 2-3 weeks FA, HC, R
*Relative humidity:Relative humidity also affects the quality and shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Moisture loss is increased by low relative humidity and is a major cause of deterioration. Fruits and vegetables contain 80 to 85 percent water. The relative humidity (RH) of the intercellular spaces of fruits and vegetables is approximately 99 percent. If the air surrounding the product has humidity less than 99 percent, moisture will move out of the plant tissue into the air. Keeping the humidity high in the storage environment is the best method to reduce moisture loss. Waxing, trimming and packing produce in plastic bags can also reduce moisture loss.

Information gathered from academic and governmental research organizations. Although we make every effort to provide you with comprehensive, carefully researched and up-to-date information we can provide no guarantee of the relevance, accuracy, correctness or completeness of such information. Please make sure you consulted all available information in order to make the right decision.

Related scientific and research articles:

Vacuum cooling of foods
pdf Overview. Hightech Europe (2011) [English version].

Precooling Fruits and Vegetables
pdf  Li Changying. College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia (2011) [English version].

Vacuum cooling technology for the food processing industry: a review
pdf Karl McDonald and Da-Wen Sun, Journal of Food Engineering 45.2 (2000) [English version].

Using Vacuum Cooling Method of Precooling Process of Cabbage
pdf Rahi, Sahar, Houshang Bahrami, and Mohammad Javad Sheikhdavoodi. (2013) [English version].

Vacuum cooling technology for the agri-food industry: Past, present and future
pdf Sun, Da-Wen, and Liyun Zheng. Journal of Food Engineering 77.2 (2006) [English version].

Cooling Method Influences the Postharvest Quality of Broccoli
pdf Gillies, S. L., and P. M. A. Toivonen. HortScience 30.2 (1995) [English version].

Handling, cooling and sanitation techniques for maintaining postharvest quality
pdf Sargent, Steven Alonzo, M. A. Ritenour, and J. K. Brecht. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS, (2000) [English version].

Properties and recommended conditions for long-term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables
pdf Cantwell, Marita. Postharvest Technology Center, University of California (2001) [English version].

Effect of vacuum cooling on physiological changes in the antioxidant system of mushroom under different storage conditions
pdf Tao, Fei, Min Zhang, and Hang-qing Yu. Journal of food engineering 79.4 (2007) [English version].

Vacuum Cooling and Storage Temperature Influence the Quality of Stored Mung Bean Sprouts
pdf DeEll, Jennifer R., et al. HortScience 35.5 (2000) [English version].

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